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Question Paper-Forensic Chemistry Forensic Toxi...



Common forensic science laboratory disciplines include forensic molecular biology (DNA), forensic chemistry, trace evidence examination (hairs and fibers, paints and polymers, glass, soil, etc.), latent fingerprint examination, firearms and toolmarks examination, handwriting analysis, fire and explosives examinations, forensic toxicology, and digital evidence. Some forensic disciplines practiced outside forensic laboratories include forensic pathology, forensic nursing, forensic psychiatry, forensic entomology, and forensic engineering. Practitioners of these disciplines are most often found in medical examiner or coroner offices, in universities, or in private practices.




Question Paper-Forensic Chemistry Forensic Toxi...



Forensic chemistry is the application of chemistry and related sciences to criminal investigation. The program prepares students to work in crime laboratories or other law enforcement agencies, such as FDA, OSHA, and EPA, or for graduate work in forensic chemistry, forensic science or analytical chemistry. The FEPAC-accredited B.S. in Forensic Chemistry degree was created in 1976 by the late Dr. James Y. Tong, a faculty member in Chemistry & Biochemistry at Ohio University, and it is one of the longest-standing programs of its kind in the country.


The mission of the Forensic Chemistry program at Ohio University is to provide a transformative learning community that will prepare students for 1) successful careers related to forensic chemistry and the forensic sciences and 2) a variety of graduate and professional degrees including analytical chemistry, forensic science, medicine, law and biomedical and environmental research.


Graduates are well-equipped for a broad range of professional opportunities. Approximately 40 percent of the graduates have pursued advanced degrees in fields such as forensic chemistry, chemistry, biochemistry, toxicology, medicine, and law. Approximately 30 percent are directly employed as laboratory chemists in crime labs at the local, regional and federal levels. The remaining graduates work in a variety of chemistry-related and non-chemistry-related employment sectors such as laboratory chemists, quality control/quality assurance labs, pharmaceutical analysts, paint and polymer chemists and as software and computer engineers.


Ohio University's Forensic Chemistry 2022 graduating class took the American Board of Criminalistics Forensic Sciences Aptitude Test as part of the program evaluation. The aptitude test is a broad test of forensic science and not specific to forensic chemistry. The department paid for the examination, and 14 out of 16 students participated.


The department offers several competitive scholarships and awards to undergraduate chemistry majors. Some scholarships are specific to forensic chemistry majors, including the James Y. and Harriet Tong Forensic Chemistry Scholarship and the Anthony Andrews Forensic Chemistry Scholarship for students showing aptitude as forensic chemists.


The forensic chemistry program at Ohio University maintains a greater than 90 retention retention rate for upper-class students (juniors and seniors). According to the National Center for Education Statistics, the national average student retention rate by public universities is 81 percent (2016 data). However, these data simply refer to retention by an institution and do not include data about students changing majors.


To guarantee consideration for all chemistry scholarships, a student must complete a FAFSA form through the Office of Student Financial Aid and meet the other qualifications: 1) Shall be pursuing or intending to pursue a B.S. degree in any of the chemistry majors (chemistry, forensic, environmental, pre-med, pre-pharm, pre-dent); 2) Shall have been admitted as a full-time student to the Ohio University Athens campus; 3) Shall have applied for university-sponsored tuition scholarships through the Office of Student Financial Aids and Scholarships; 4) Shall have demonstrated ability or potential for successful performance in college-level study and for a career in chemistry. Some scholarships are restricted to forensic chemistry majors only and you may apply after you have completed one year in the program.


Forensic chemistry is the application of chemistry and its subfield, forensic toxicology, in a legal setting. A forensic chemist can assist in the identification of unknown materials found at a crime scene.[1] Specialists in this field have a wide array of methods and instruments to help identify unknown substances. These include high-performance liquid chromatography, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, atomic absorption spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and thin layer chromatography. The range of different methods is important due to the destructive nature of some instruments and the number of possible unknown substances that can be found at a scene. Forensic chemists prefer using nondestructive methods first, to preserve evidence and to determine which destructive methods will produce the best results.


Throughout history, a variety of poisons have been used to commit murder, including arsenic, nightshade, hemlock, strychnine, and curare.[10] Until the early 19th century, there were no methods to accurately determine if a particular chemical was present, and poisoners were rarely punished for their crimes.[11] In 1836, one of the first major contributions to forensic chemistry was introduced by British chemist James Marsh. He created the Marsh test for arsenic detection, which was subsequently used successfully in a murder trial.[12] It was also during this time that forensic toxicology began to be recognized as a distinct field. Mathieu Orfila, the "father of toxicology", made great advancements to the field during the early 19th century.[13] A pioneer in the development of forensic microscopy, Orfila contributed to the advancement of this method for the detection of blood and semen.[13] Orfila was also the first chemist to successfully classify different chemicals into categories such as corrosives, narcotics, and astringents.[11]


One of the most important advancements in forensic chemistry came in 1955 with the invention of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) by Fred McLafferty and Roland Gohlke.[23][24] The coupling of a gas chromatograph with a mass spectrometer allowed for the identification of a wide range of substances.[24] GC-MS analysis is widely considered the "gold standard" for forensic analysis due to its sensitivity and versatility along with its ability to quantify the amount of substance present.[25] The increase in the sensitivity of instrumentation has advanced to the point that minute impurities within compounds can be detected potentially allowing investigators to trace chemicals to a specific batch and lot from a manufacturer.[5]


Individuals called to testify must be able to relay scientific information and processes in a manner that lay individuals can understand.[48] By being qualified as an expert, chemists are allowed to give their opinions on the evidence as opposed to just stating the facts. This can lead to competing opinions from experts hired by the opposing side.[48] Ethical guidelines for forensic chemists require that testimony be given in an objective manner, regardless of what side the expert is testifying for.[49] Forensic experts that are called to testify are expected to work with the lawyer who issued the summons and to assist in their understanding of the material they will be asking questions about.[49]


Forensic engineering is a type of investigative engineering that examines materials, structures, and mechanical devices to answer a wide range of questions. Often used in cases of car crashes, forensic engineers can often estimate the speed of a vehicle by examining the extent of damage to a vehicle. They can also match damage between vehicles and road surface to determine the point of impact and speed at the time of impact. Many police agencies now have specialized traffic personnel trained in accident analysis and accident reconstruction. These officers utilize a variety of forensic engineering techniques to examine and document the dynamics of car crashes to establish how and why a crash occurred.


In cases of building collapses, forensic engineers can conduct analyzes to determine the cause of a structural failure and, in the case of an intention explosion, such as in acts of terrorism, this can point to the location of the planted explosive device. The investigative possibilities for forensic engineering are too extensive to elaborate here, but if damage to a building, an object, or a piece of equipment poses an investigative question, the tools of forensic engineering should be used to seek answers.


Forensic document analysis is typically done by certified forensic document examiners working as independent contractors or as employees within the service of government funded crime detection laboratories. Most often tasked within the scope of fraud investigations, these specialists examine items, such as wills, land titles, contracts, deeds, seals, stamps, bank checks, identification cards, handwritten documents and documents from photocopiers, fax machines, and printers. These documents are often examined to authenticate them as genuine or unaltered original documents where an allegation of misrepresentation or fraud has been made. Original signatures are also sometimes called into question, and these examiners can make a determination of authenticity by comparing the signature sample to samples known to be genuine. Forensic experts are also called upon to analyze threatening letters, ransom letters, or hold-up notes to make a connection to an identified suspect.


Once a sample reaches the laboratory, it will be subjected to a battery of tests by a trained forensic chemist who specializes in drug chemistry. Forensic chemists must meet specific educational and training requirements in order to handle evidence, and every agency or jurisdiction has different criteria for meeting these requirements. The Scientific Working Group for the Analysis of Seized Drugs (SWGDRUG) publishes recommendations for minimum levels of education, training and continuing education for analysts. 041b061a72


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